100,000+ Sign Up For Stanford’s Open Class on Artificial Intelligence. Classes With 1 Million+ Next?

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Introduction to AI opening

A groundbreaking change has struck academia, and its reverberations may be felt for years to come. One of Stanford's first full courses to ever be openly made available online has gone viral. In a matter of weeks it has signed up more than 100,000 students from around the world! Even as I wrote this article, another 5000 joined! As news of the course continues to spread, the ultimate size of the class could reach greater epic proportions - we could easily see interest skyrocket to 200,000 or even 300,000 or more.  Classes of 1 million or tens of millions may be in our future. If Stanford can succeed in teaching classes of 100k+ students at a time, what will it mean for education in general?

The secret to professors and teaching staff handling such an unheard of number of attendees lies in the subject of the class itself: artificial intelligence. This fall, Stanford professors Peter Norvig and Sebastian Thrun will offer their ever popular Introduction to AI for free on the internet. Norvig and Thrun, leaders in artificial intelligence, will be using automated systems to help them at every level of the massive endeavor, from deciding which questions to answer to grading final exams. Anyone can sign up, watch lectures, have their homework graded, and take the exams. Everyone who passes will receive a certificate verifying their completion of the course and marking how they ranked compared to others in the class, including the Stanford students who'll be attending in person. Check out the videos from Norvig and Thrun below to see what the course will be all about.

Attracting 100,000+ students from all over the globe is no simple matter. It helps when the professors are some of the biggest names in the field. Peter Norvig is the Director of Research at Google, the former senior computer scientist at NASA and literally wrote the textbook on AI (Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, with co-author Stuart Russell). Sebastian Thrun is one of the most brilliant minds in AI and robotics, heading the Stanford team that won the DARPA challenge in 2005, and is the leading force behind Google's Automated Car, which recently drove more than 140,000 miles without human assistance. These two men are giants in their fields, and their Introduction to AI class at Stanford has rightfully attracted large crowds in the past - 200 students or so.

For their inaugural online edition of the course they want 200,000.

Here's Thrun pitching the course in the first announcement video released mid-July. I've included a more recent update released four days ago when they had just 56,000 students enrolled! Yes, nearly 50,000 more students joined in less than a work week.

If Norvig and Thrun's expertise makes signing up for this course enticing, it's also the only thing that makes actually teaching the course possible. There's simply no way two human beings (or even twenty if you gave them a large staff of assistants) could manage 100,000+ students. Instead, a company founded by Thrun, Know Labs, will help automate every stage of the class. Questions will be submitted and then ranked to see which will be answered in class. Exercises will be available to help teach concepts online. Homework will be submitted and likely graded via AI systems. So too, for the midterm and final exams. It's a class that teaches artificial intelligence and then uses artificial intelligence to measure how well it is teaching. Recursively brilliant. Norvig describes the mechanics of the class in slightly greater detail in the following video:

The online launch of Introduction to Artificial Intelligence has garnered attention from major media sources like the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, and has lit the blogosphere afire with enthusiasm and anticipation. Yet, what's often lost in the coverage is the precedent for this success. In 2008, Andrew Ng, the Director of the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab started offering videos for his Introduction to Machine Learning on YouTube, regularly garnering 200,000+ views. This outreach was part of a larger "Stanford Engineering Everywhere " effort which has racked up more than a total 1 million viewers of its course materials online. Ng's Introduction to Machine Learning will also be available as an online class this fall, along with Introduction to Databases, taught by Jennifer Widom (chair of Stanford's Comp. Sci. Department). Catch Ng's pitch for his class, featuring some excellent examples of robot applications for machine learning, in the video below:

A sample of Ng's lectures can be found here on YouTube.

Introduction to Machine Learning and Introduction to Databases have attracted 20,000+ students on their own. While that's not nearly the same crowd as Thrun and Norvig's, these classes demonstrate that the Introduction to AI online course isn't some isolated phenomenon. It's a careful step towards a bigger goal - one that extends even beyond Stanford. As they explained to the New York Times, Thrun and Norvig were inspired by efforts like those of Salman Kahn, whose Khan Academy has expanded from a few rudimentary YouTube videos on math made for his cousins, to an extensive library of 2400+ videos, and 125+ exercises available free to everyone. The Khan Academy demonstrates how video lectures can revolutionize the classroom, inverting the way we teach. Students watch and learn at home, they practice at school. Now, a world class university is bringing the same level of innovation to higher education, showing us that online distribution and automated systems can bring college-level courses to anyone with a steady internet connection. A class of 100,000 or even 200,000 isn't impossible - it's inspiring.

If it's as real as we think it is. The running total on the Intro to AI web page (which currently reads around 102k) is just for those students who sign up to register. It can't predict how many students will decide to ultimately attend virtual classes and participate in homework. Even if everyone who signs up attends, one has to wonder about the attrition rates over the duration of the course. Even Stanford students regularly drop courses, will virtual students who hit the wall half way through the class have the drive (or community support) to tough it out? It could be that a large chunk of the 100,000+ attendees will leave or fail.

But what if they don't? What happens then? What open enrollment courses like Introduction to AI are moving us towards isn't exactly clear. Of the 100,000+ students who will take Introduction to Artificial Intelligence course, only Stanford students will receive college credit. Non Stanford students will receive a certificate which, while ranking their work and asserting their completion of the course, is unlikely to serve as a boost to their credentials. Or perhaps it will, if you were hiring someone, would you be more impressed with their degree from Podunk University in the middle of nowhere if they also had a certified success with luminaries like Thrun and Norvig? If so, Stanford University may be devaluing their product, so to speak. Or rather, changing it.

Highly selective universities like Stanford owe a large part of the eventual success of their students to how rigorously they were filtered before they ever even took a class their freshmen year. If hundreds of thousands of people apply, taking the top 5% virtually guarantees you'll have some of the brightest minds available. On top of that great beginning, Stanford adds exemplary courses, first hand interactions with professors, and all the other benefits of attending a university in person.

stadium AI

World class education for the masses. It's here, and it's only going to get bigger.

Free online courses like Introduction to AI can't compete with Stanford's selectivity, but then again, they don't want to. Open education simply attempts to bring the same exemplary courses, and the closest thing to first-hand interaction they can find, to everyone who wants it. Such a system will probably never replace the highest echelons of advanced education, but it may make a life-changing difference to those around the world who never had a chance of attending those upper echelons. Poverty, regionalism, and language - how many great minds are lost to these barriers every year? Cheap internet access is expanding to every corner of the globe through mobile devices. Text for all three of Stanford's pioneering courses are being translated. So too are programs like the Khan Academy. It's only a matter of time, I think, before online education conquers these great barriers and opens university course work (classes in artificial intelligence no less!) to the world.

In the near term, expect to see more universities joining this bandwagon. Many already place lectures online, and using AI to facilitate actual graded coursework seems like a logical next step. Private companies are likely to get in on the action, too. "Celebrity Lectures" or something of that kind would undoubtedly be very popular (does TED ring a bell?). This won't be isolated to the US, organizations from all over the world have potential here. I'd be remiss if I didn't point out that the Indian Institute of Technology has been offering an introductary AI course on YouTube since 2008. These types of classes are going to get bigger. If enrollment is allowed to continue, I've no doubt that Thrun and Norvig's Intro to AI will keep rocketing towards 200,000 students (the count went up by 2000 just while I was writing this article). Powered by online videos and automated grading systems, there's no reason why these kinds of classes couldn't reach 1 Million or even 10 Million students at a time! This is a very exciting point in the development of digital education. Major educators at major institutions are seeing the potential in opening their doors. Success now can fuel this trend to keep growing until determination and time are the only barriers to education left.

[image credit: BigCats Lair via Wikicommons (modified), Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (Stanford)]

[sources: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence (Stanford)]

Discussion — 11 Responses

  • chopinzman August 18, 2011 on 8:45 pm

    They should have other colleges, possibly high schools, participate in this.
    I think education will see a marked improvement when you can choose, even as a elementary student, what interests you most. Schools will be able to offer a huge variety of subjects without having to hire experts on them. Instead a teacher will probably monitor and learn along with the students. Combined with educational software and video games, we are about to see a marked improvement in student interest, participation, and motivation. Besides this the quality of content is likely to be much higher. Probably a lot of jobs will open up for creative individuals to craft this system.

  • Ivan Malagurski August 18, 2011 on 10:20 pm

    Thumbs up for Stanford!

  • Rob August 19, 2011 on 12:18 am

    The greatest impact will be in destroying the political control of education. Here, in the UK, the content, management, funding, entry requirements, marking and content is all highly political. It consumes vast amounts of taxpayers money to pay the bureaucrats and living expenses of half 18 year olds to attend residential courses far from home. The department of Education and the universities themselves have, over the decades become populated with Left leaning people mostly associated with the Labour party. In schools too, this is even more political with elaborate social ranking being used to determine who goes where. Our exam system is controlled by the government or its sympathisers, systematically infiltrated by Labour party supporters over the last 13 years whose task has been to give the greatest number of people the greatest number of broadly equal standard so that no-one shall do better than anyone else – as far as is politically possible; enthusiastically supported by powerful, Marxist, bovine teaching unions.

    All this would be swept away with education becoming an on line, student driven, performance oriented mass participation activity. I can see this extending not just through higher education but to secondary, primary and pre-school too and then professional, technical and job training all dependent on AI for implementation, virtually no bureaucracy and the best brains in the business doing the content. I can\’t wait.

  • krunkster August 19, 2011 on 8:44 am

    There are reasons why they have set a target of 200k I think.
    The infrastructure design complications, and costs to host even the most automated systems become increasingly cumbersome with load.
    Even youtube probably couldn’t handle one million people viewing the same video at one time.
    Now if the courses are provided asynchronously then the potential for attendance would be able to grow much larger.

  • chopinzman August 23, 2011 on 6:49 pm

    what exactly are those crimes peter? Why would they need to murder a student? I read those blogs, but I don\’t know their motives, and why would they be after you? Are you a student at stanford? What are you studying? I realize that it is a real police case, but Why link them to this crime? Also, why were you assaulted? Anger? Or something else?

    If you can’t provide clearer evidence, noone will take you seriously.

    • caopeter chopinzman August 24, 2011 on 1:42 am

      I have patience to clarify again: The motives of their crimes is to help Sebastian Thrun who collateralled with

      this criminal suspect Gabriele Scheler to fight against ruling from authorities against their crimes. They

      murdered that Stanford student to terrorize me and to threaten authorities.

      I was not a Stanford student by that time, but I was about to get into Stanford to work, and then horrible things

      began all from Scheler’s false accusations and Thrun’s retaliations. I was recommended by Thrun’s bosses in

      Stanford to get into Stanford as a solution to the complication, but Thrun pretended not knowing it in advance,

      and he collateralled with criminal suspect Gabriele Scheler (they both have German origin, so do Eric Schmidt) to

      deliberately trap me, threaten me and retaliate on me for sake of Scheler. And then for the next several years,

      while they dare not confront me to clarify the case, people behind them had played all kinds of tricks to cover up

      their crimes, crimes as serious as intrude my privacy, manipulate my private communications, killing the innocent

      Stanford student May Zhou to threaten me and to terrorize Stanford people, set up coup in Stanford, conspire

      authorities who rules against them … People behind Scheler and Thrun would do anything extreme beyond my

      imagination …

    • Peter_Cao chopinzman August 24, 2011 on 10:23 pm

      Look inside [ http://tysurl.com/BsEnQ4 ]